Coordination Disorders (DCD) also know as developmental dyspraxia,
are characterized as being "clumsy" or "awkward".
Children with developmental coordination disorder have difficulties
with motor coordination as compared to other children of the same
age. These children have difficulties in mastering gross motor
coordination tasks such as crawling, walking, jumping, standing
on one foot, catching a ball and fine coordination task such as
tying shoelaces. Some children also demonstrate expressive speech
feature of Developmental Coordination Disorder is a marked impairment
in the development of motor coordination.
Performance in daily activities that require motor coordination
is substantially below that expected given the person's chronological
age and measured intelligence. This may be manifested by marked
delays in achieving motor milestones (e.g., walking, crawling,
sitting), dropping things, "clumsiness," poor performance
in sports, or poor handwriting.
in Criterion A significantly interferes with academic achievement
or activities of daily living.
is not due to a general medical condition (e.g., cerebral
palsy, hemiplegia, or muscular dystrophy) and does not meet
criteria for a Pervasive Developmental Disorder.
Retardation is present, the motor difficulties are in excess
of those usually associated with it.
of Disorders which include:
Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder
associated with Developmental Coordination Disorder include delays
in other non-motor milestones. Associated disorders may include
Phonological Disorder, Expressive
Language Disorder, and Mixed
Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder. Prevalence of Developmental
Coordination Disorder has been estimated to be as high as 6% for
children in the age range of 5 -11 years. Course Recognition of
Developmental Coordination Disorder usually occurs when the child
first attempts such tasks as running, holding a knife and fork,
buttoning clothes, or playing ball games. The course is variable.
In some cases, lack of coordination continues through adolescence
have similar symptoms. The clinician, therefore, in his diagnostic
attempt has to differentiate against the following disorders which
need to be ruled out to establish a precise diagnosis.
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Traumatic Brain Injury.
Mild Cerebral Palsy.
Decreased Visual Acuity.
is unknown but several lines of evidence suggest that it arises
as a result of some form of central nervous system pathology.
There is no known cure for
PDD. Medications are used to address certain behavioral problems;
therapy for children with PDD should be specialized according
to the child's specific needs. Some children with PDD benefit
from specialized classrooms in which the class size is small and
instruction is given on a one-to-one basis. Others function well
in standard special education classes or regular classes with
therapists, physiotherapists and receiving additional assistance
at school can all help the child cope.