Reading Disorder (DRD) or Dyslexia
is defect of the brains higher cortical processing of symbols.
Children with DRD may have trouble rhyming and separating the
sounds in spoken words.
As measured by a standardized tests, the patient's ability to
read (accuracy or comprehension) is substantially less than
you would expect considering age, intelligence and education.
This deficiency materially impedes academic achievement or daily
in Expressive Language and Speech Discrimination are usually
Expressive Writing Disorder is often present.
Visual Perceptual Deficits are seen in only about 10% of cases.
Disruptive Behavior Disorders may also be present, particularly
in older children and adolescents.
Some disorders have similar or even the same symptoms. The clinician,
therefore, in his/her diagnostic attempt has to differentiate
against the following disorders which need to be ruled out to
establish a precise diagnosis.
a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin.
It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and / or fluent
word recognition and by poor spelling abilities. These difficulties
typically result from a deficit in the phonological component
of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive
abilities. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading
comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth
of vocabulary and background knowledge.
Dyslexia in the Pre-school Child
difficulty in development of clear speech and a tendency to
jumble words and phrases over some time.
with dressing efficiently, tying shoe laces, and putting clothes
on in the right order.
clumsiness and difficulty with co-ordination.
such as when stories are read to them.
to associate sounds with words.
to appreciate rhyme.
of similar difficulties.
Not all dyslexic
children show these all these signs. Many small children make
these same mistakes and should not cause concern where any of
these occur occasionally. Dyslexia is likely when difficulties
are severe and persist over a number of years, or where there
are several such difficulties in a milder form.
to learn the alphabet or the sounds represented by the letters.
to read except for a very few simple words.
to put sounds together to make words.
to use a pencil to write properly.
to remember sequences.
telling right from left.
difficulty with tying shoelaces, dressing
difficulty with co-ordinated activities.
and poor concentration.
in academic subjects compared with classmates.
often leading to behavioral problems or becoming withdrawn and
to learn multiplication tables.
to follow a number of instructions or remember more than one
thing at a time.
and poor concentration.
in organizing work.
writing down oral instructions.
lack of self-confidence and increasing frustration.
in studying for and coping with exams.
reading difficulties, most work takes very much longer than
problems with spelling, writing. Inconsistent in what they seem
to read inaccurately and without comprehension.
in learning foreign languages.
who continue in further education have usually developed strategies
to get to grips with their problems. Most students will have
identified a number of subjects at which they may excel. They
often have the advantage of superior practical skills (e.g.
woodwork, art or crafts). Many dyslexics progress to university
or any other chosen field without discrimination or difficulty
Genetic and neurobiological research essential confirms psychological
research in this area. Family studies show a reading disorder
is heritable, aggregates in families, and probably reflects autosomal
dominant transmission. The brains of individuals with reading
disorders are organized somewhat differently and appear to process
the phonological information in a less efficient, more diffuse
Remedial instruction has remained the best approach to this
type of reading disorder therefore, learning disorders are treated
with specialized educational methods. In addition to special
classroom instruction at school, students with learning disorders
frequently benefit from individualized tutoring which focuses
on their specific learning problem.